Thursday, September 14, 2017

Virus Reproduction

Viruses reproduction begins when the virion comes into contact with a suitable host cell. The DNA or RNA enters the host cell and begins to function as genetic information by directing the synthesis of specific types of proteins that have enzymatic and structural roles. The infectious cycle usually consists of two different stages. In the first, the proteins are produced that are required for the reproduction of the viral DNA or RNA in conjunction with components of the host cell. In the second stage, proteins that make up the virion are produced; these combine with the DNA or RNA to form mature virions, which are the released from the cell. In some cases this release involves the complete disruption and death of the cell, a process known as lysis. In other cases individual virions are released through the cell membrane without killing the cell.

A virus contains the information needed to reproduce itself coded in its nucleic acid. Because it lacks its own protein producing machinery, however, the virus must use the machinery of the host cell in order to multiply. A bacteriophage virion attaches to a bacterial cell and injects its DNA into the bacterium. Using bacterial ribosomes enzyme the viral DNA direct the synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA), enzymes that break up bacterial DNA, and enzymes that allow replication of viral DNA. Protein synthesized, using mRNA, from the DNA code, these proteins from heads, tails, and tail fibers, and the virus parts assemble into complete virions. An enzymes break up the bacterial cell and liberates the new virions, which can infect other bacterial cells. The information that bring by DNA will procude a virus with the same virus characteristic.

Wednesday, September 13, 2017

Virus History

Viruses History


Viruses were discovered at the end of the 19th century. In 1892, Dimitri Ivanovsky, a Rusian botanist, discovered that the sap from tobacco plants affected by mosaic diseases could be passed through filters so fine as to exclude all known bacteria and still retain the ability to produce the diseases in new plants. In 1898, Frederich Loeffler and Paul Frosch reported similar results for the infectious agent of foot-and-mouth diseases of cattle. They also showed that an animal inoculated with a tiny amount of filtered material could itself subsequently give rise to a very potent inoculums. This indicated that the infectious agent was able to reproduce itself within the infected animal. During the next three decades many viruses were discovered. Unlike other microorganisms, none of the viruses could be propagated in the absence of host cells, which led researchers to conclude that viruses are intracellular parasites.

Beginning in the 1930s, a number of new techniques were developed for virology, or the study of viruses. The discovery that many animal viruses can be grown in mice and in chicken embryos allowed the course of viral infection to be studied under controlled laboratory conditions. Very high-speed centrifuges were developed that made possible the preparation highly purified virions. Chemical analysis showed that viruses consist primarily of nucleic acid and protein, and the development of the electron microscope during the 1940s permitted scientists to study the size and shape of these virions in great detail.

Because of the ease with which bacteria can be grown and manipulated in the laboratory, many of the features of intracellular viral development were first discovered by studying bacteriophage, which are viruses that grow in bacteria. During the late 1950s techniques for growing animal cells in tissue culture were developed, making possible the detailed study of the intracellular growth of animal viruses.

Saturday, November 8, 2014

Many Flu Symptoms

General flu symptom we may all have known, but other kind of flu may we can confused because the symptom may similar with other flu symptom but actually cause of different viruses. But the similar evident of each flu is happened in many place in certain area like plague. If bird flu is in season you and the environment around the patient should be alert because the possibility has similar diseases can occur.

Swine Flu
Flu Symptom and Cold Symptom
For general flu or influenza symptom you can feel it like headache, backache, and sometime your throat feel hot. Other kind of flu like bird flu may accompanied by fever. For children often time also accompanied by fever.

Bird Flu
Bird flu or avian influenza is a viral infection spread from bird to bird. Particularly deadly strain of bird flu H5N1, continues to spread among poultry in Egypt and Asia.

H1N1/Swine Flu
H1N1 virus causes Swine flu is combines genetic material from pigs, birds, human flu in way researchers have not seen before, thus leading us to suspect it was cooked up in a lab.

How to prevent of getting swine flu can follow the tips on here Prevent from Swine flu. Basically you must frequent of washing hand, covering cough and sneezes, avoid of crowded setting when possible and others.

Complication of Flu
Flu can also make complication ranging from sinus infection to life threatening pneumonia. Get the latest information of flu complications.

Monday, October 27, 2014

EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE (EVD)

Ebola Virus Disease or simply called as EBOLA, is a disease of human or other primates caused by ebolaviruses (EBOV). Victim who contaminated by this virus usually will sign the symptom about 2 or 3 days, such as fever, sore throat, muscle pain and headaches. Vomiting, diarrhea and rash will follow, along with decrease function of liver and kidneys. People can die after six to sixteen days after the symptoms appear and often cause of low blood pressure of fluid loss.

Human can be infected through contact with blood or other body fluids of an infected human or other animal. Spread the diseases is not possible by air. EBOV also can spread from semen or breast milk for several weeks to months after recovery. Fruit bath are believe to be the normal carrier in nature, able to spread the virus without being affected by it.

Until now, there is no specific treatment for the virus available. Doctor treat usually by giving oral rehydration therapy or intravenous fluid as well as treating symptoms. This disease has a high risk of death, killing between 25 % and 90 % of those infected with the virus, with an average mortality rate of 50%.

EVD was first identifying in Sudan (now part of South Sudan) and Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo. The disease typically occurs in outbreaks in tropical region of sub-Saharan Africa. WHO reported the victim has reach 1,716 cases, the largest outbreak to date is ongoing 2014 West African Ebola Outbreak, which is affecting to Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. In this year (2014) reported 10,141 cases and make death of 4,922 peoples.

Victim
The infected person of Ebolavirus, become like zombie as on the picture below, because their face become have some wound like death body.



Prevention and Control
To people that live on the outbreak area must wearing of protective clothing including masks, gloves, gowns, and googles. This procedure is recommended for whom handle objects contaminated by the infected person’s body fluid. Training and educated people to make more understand and aware to the danger of this disease.

Ebolaviruses can be eliminated with heat (about 30 to 60 minutes at 60 oC or boiling water at 5 minutes). To disinfect surface can use lipid solvent such as alcohol based product, detergents, sodium hypochlorite (bleach) or calcium hypochlorite and other suitable disinfectants at appropriate concentrations may be used.

Sunday, October 26, 2014

The Danger 5 Kind of viruses

Ebola Viruses plague in West Africa make more than 1000 peoples died. The degree mortality of Ebola viruse can reach 60 percent. Other kind of viruses maybe have lower level that causing dead but these viruses kill many people every year.

The Five of Killer Viruses as follows:

1. Rabies
This viruses are spread over the saliva and animal bite that infected by rabies, such as dog, monkey, or bat. People who bite by animal must be directly give rabies vaccine to avoid infected by rabies. But not all people aware to this danger.

Rabies have high level fatality among other kind of viruses. In the US only three people can stand to live without vaccination after attack by these viruses. As the WHO almost 55,000 peoples died by rabies in Africa and Asia.

2. Human Immunodeficiensy
Virus (HIV) and Autoimmune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Even the died people because of HIV tend to down several last year, in the year of 2012, about 1.6 million peoples are died in the world because of HIV virus and AIDS.

This virus is attack immune cell of someone and weaken the prevention body system. Then slowly the victim have difficulties to fight other diseases. If already reach to AIDS level, even only flue can make victim died.

After this virus founded in year 1981, AIDS have killed 650,000 people in US and estimate 36 millions of people in the world. Until now there is no medicine for HIV/AIDS, giving antiretroviral (ARV) can make victim have longer life time.

3. Influenza
Flue is not danger as the previous two kinds of viruses, but influenza killed more people than Ebola virus. The number of people died due to flu virus still debatable, but CDC estimate in US about 3.000 peoples to 49,000 people every year.

4. Virus from Mosquito
This kind of viruses is spread over the mosquito bite that already infected. WHO and CDC record this diseases like DBD, cat cold, or West Nile Virus (WNV) already killed 50,000 peoples in all over the world. Beside viruses, parasite causing malaria also killed 600,000 peoples every year.
DBD disease tend to spread abroad over the country because of people moving. Different with WNV, this virus attack nerve is spread by mosquito that infected from bird.

5. Rotavirus
This virus attack digestive system and fatal if attack to children. CDC claimed found almost 111 million gastroenteritis every year from all over the world. Majority of victims are below 5 years and 82 percent died found in development countries.

Vaccine for rotavirus have founded in US year of 1998, but cancel to release with security reason. Then in the year of 2006, vaccine found and recommended for children above two years.